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“Employee” – includes any person in the employ of an employer. 1. Concept “Employee” – includes any person in the employ of an employer. The


“Employer” – includes any person acting in the interest of an employer, directly or indirectly. 1. Concept “Employer” – includes any person acting in the

Constructive dismissal

Summary ▪ Constructive dismissal refers to a quitting because continued employment is rendered impossible, unreasonable or unlikely; as, an offer involving a demotion in rank

Agabon doctrine

1. Concept “Agabon doctrine” – refers to jurisprudential rule that the dismissal of employees for just causes or authorized causes but without observance of procedural

Strained relations doctrine

1. Concept If employees win an illegal dismissal case, the default remedy is for them to be reinstated back to work. However, it is possible

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Voluntary arbitration

1. Concepts “Voluntary arbitration” – refers to the mode of settling labor-management disputes by which the parties select a competent, trained and impartial persons who shall decide on the merits of the case

Collective Bargaining Agreement

A CBA is a contract entered by the employer and the workers’ sole and exclusive bargaining agent, who shall be the only one authorized to represent the employees for the purpose of collective

Cases: Premium pay

The following are the related or relevant Labor Law Cases or Jurisprudence on the topic. 1) Covered and excluded employees Peñaranda v. Bagana Plywood Corporation G.R. No. 159577, 03 May 2006 [The complainant-employee]