▪ Rank-and-file employees are those who are not managerial employees nor supervisory employees.
“Managerial employee” is one who is vested with the powers or prerogatives to lay down and execute management policies and/or to hire, transfer, suspend, lay-off, recall, discharge, assign or discipline employees. Supervisory employees are those who, in the interest of the employer, effectively recommend such managerial actions if the exercise of such authority is not merely routinary or clerical in nature but requires the use of independent judgment. All employees not falling within any of the above definitions are considered rank-and-file employees for purposes of this Book. (Section [m], Article 219, Labor Code; Section [o], Rule I, Book V, Omnibus Rules Implementing the Labor Code)
▪ P.D. 442, Labor Code of the Philippines