▪ To be valid, the just cause of willful disobedience of a lawful order should comply with prescribed standards.
2. Standards for willful disobedience
The standards are:
1) There must be disobedience or insubordination;
2) The disobedience or insubordination must be willful or intentional characterized by a wrongful and perverse attitude;
3) The order violated must be reasonable, lawful, and made known to the employee; and,
4) The order must pertain to the duties which he has been engaged to discharge. (Section 5.2[b], Rule I-A, DOLE D.O. 147-15)
▪ Jurisprudence or Supreme Court Decisions